The following are the various factors/determinants that impact the dividend policy of a company:
TYPE OF INDUSTRY
The nature of the industry to which the company belongs has an important effect on the dividend policy. Industries, where earnings are stable, may adopt a consistent dividend policy as opposed to the industries where earnings are uncertain and uneven. They are better off in having a conservative approach to dividend payout.
The ownership structure of a company also impacts the policy. A company with a higher promoter’ holdings will prefer a low dividend payout as paying out dividends may cause a decline in the value of the stock. Whereas, a high institutional ownership will favor a high dividend payout as it helps them to increase the control over the management.
AGE OF CORPORATION
Newly formed companies will have to retain major part of their earnings for further growth and expansion. Thus, they have to follow a conservative policy unlike established companies, which can pay higher dividends from their reserves.
THE EXTENT OF SHARE DISTRIBUTION
A company with a large number of shareholders will have a difficult time in getting them to agree to a conservative policy. On the other hand, a closely held company has more chances of succeeding to finalize conservative dividend payouts.
DIFFERENT SHAREHOLDERS’ EXPECTATIONS
Another factor that impacts the policy is the diversity in the type of shareholders a company has. A different group of shareholders will have different expectations. A retired shareholder will have a different requirement vis-a-vis a wealthy investor. The company needs to clearly understand the different expectations and formulate a successful dividend policy. Psychologically, cash dividend will give more satisfaction to shareholder in comparison to capital appreciation.
A company having more leverage in their financial structure and consequently, more interest payments may to decide for a low dividend payout, so as to increase their net worth and to make sure that it can make payment of financial charges even in case of earning of the company is falling. Whereas a company utilizing more of own financing will prefer high dividends.
FUTURE FINANCIAL REQUIREMENTS / REINVESTMENT OPPORTUNITY
Dividend payout will also depend on the future requirements for the additional capital. A company having profitable investment opportunities is justified in retaining the earnings. However, a company with no capital requirements should opt for a higher dividend.
When the company experiences a boom, it is prudent to save up and make reserves for dips. Such reserves will help a company to maintain dividend even in depressing markets to retain and attract more shareholders.
CHANGES IN GOVERNMENT POLICIES
There could be the change in the dividend policy of a company due to the imposed changes by the government. The Indian government had put temporary restrictions on companies to pay dividends during 1974-75.
The profitability of a firm is reflected in net profit ratio and ratio of profit to total assets. A highly profitable company have a capacity to pays higher dividends and a company with less profits will adopt a conservative dividend policy.
The corporate taxes will affect dividend policy, either directly or indirectly. The taxes directly reduce the residual earnings after tax available for the shareholders. If dividend income is taxable in the hands of investor and capital gain is exempt, then company may retain its earning so as to increase price per share, which ultimately gives higher return to investors’ and vice versa. Further if it is possible that bifurcate all shareholders into high tax bracket or low tax bracket, accordingly dividend policy can be framed. Finally, objective is to give maximum return to shareholders.
TRENDS OF PROFITS
Even if the company has been profitable over the years, the trend should be properly analyzed to find the average earnings of the company. This average number should be then studied in relation to the general economic conditions. This will help in opting for a conservative policy if a depression is approaching.
Liquidity has a direct relation with the dividend policy. Many a times, company having high profit, may have majority of profit blocked in working capital or it may acquired assets. In that case its liquidity is poor. In that case company should pay less dividend. High dividend payment is possible only if company has good earning and sound liquidity.
There are certain legal restrictions on the companies for dividend payments. It is legal to pay a dividend only if the capital is not reduced post payment. These rules are in place to protect creditors’ interest. Most importantly providing depreciation is mandatory before making payment of dividend. Depreciation is to be provided at minimum rates provided. Providing depreciation is very important because with that company is able to retain an amount of profit for replacement of fixed assets in future.
Inflationary environments compel companies to retain major part of their earnings and indulge in lower dividends. As the prices rise, the companies need to increase their capital reserves for their purchases of fixed assets. In case of inflationary situation, same quantity of closing stock will have more valuation, so payment of tax also increase.
The firms aiming for more control in the hands of current shareholders prefer a conservative dividend payout policy. It is imperative to pay fewer dividends to retain more control and the earnings in the company. In a nutshell, the management of a company is completely free to frame the required dividend policy. There are no obligations to be adhered to. So, the company needs to judiciously weight all the above-mentioned factors and formulate a balanced dividend policy. A dividend policy can also be revised in the wake of changes in any of the factors.
REPAYMENT OF DEBT
If a substantial amount of debt is required to paid, in that case even though the company has high amount of earning, it may pay less dividend